Whole system ads-blocking
add a tracker to a specific torrent in rtorrent

Mail server

sudo apt-get install vim 

STL/SSL certificat:

As we don't want our login information to be plain on the network we are also going to use STL to secure the connection. For this we need to create a self signed certificat with the following commands, or buy a commercial one.

Creating a self signed certificat:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/ssl/private/
sudo mkdir -p /etc/ssl/certs/
sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/mail.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/mailcert.pem
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: FR
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]: Rhone-Alpes
Locality Name (eg, city) []: LYON
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: 
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: 
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []: modolo-dev.fr
Email Address []: postmaster@modolo-dev.fr

the public certificat created is in /etc/ssl/certs/mailcert.pem and the private key that nobody should have access to is in /etc/ssl/private/mail.key.


sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get remove exim4
sudo apt-get install postfix # select internet site and enter your server name
sudo service postfix stop
sudo vim /etc/postfix/master.cf

uncomment the submission section and change it to:

submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_sasl_type=dovecot
  -o smtpd_sasl_path=private/auth
  -o smtpd_sasl_security_options=noanonymous
  -o smtpd_sasl_local_domain=$myhostname
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o smtpd_sender_login_maps=hash:/etc/postfix/virtual
  -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=reject_sender_login_mismatch
  -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=reject_non_fqdn_recipient,reject_unknown_recipient_domain,permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
sudo vim /etc/postfix/main.cf 

We can comment every thing on this file and add the following:

myhostname = modolo-dev.fr
myorigin = /etc/mailname
mydestination = modolo-dev.fr, localhost, localhost.localdomain
relayhost =
mynetworks = [::ffff:]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all

alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases

smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
smtpd_tls_protocols = !SSLv2, !SSLv3

local_recipient_maps = proxy:unix:passwd.byname $alias_maps

smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot
smtpd_sasl_path = private/auth
queue_directory = /var/spool/postfix
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_relay_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, reject_unauth_destination
sudo vim /etc/aliases
mailer-daemon: postmaster
postmaster: root
nobody: root
hostmaster: root
usenet: root
news: root
webmaster: root
www: root
ftp: root
abuse: root
root: laurent
sudo newaliases


sudo apt-get install dovecot-common
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf

clear the file and add:

disable_plaintext_auth = no
mail_privileged_group = mail
mail_location = mbox:~/mail:INBOX=/var/mail/%u
userdb {
  driver = passwd
passdb {
  args = %s
  driver = pam
protocols = "imap"

mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir
namespace inbox {
    separator = /
    inbox = yes
    mailbox Trash {
        auto = subscribe
        special_use = \Trash
    mailbox Drafts {
        auto = subscribe
        special_use = \Drafts
    mailbox Sent {
        auto = subscribe # autocreate and autosubscribe the Sent mailbox
        special_use = \Sent
    mailbox "Sent Messages" {
        auto = no
        special_use = \Sent
    mailbox Spam {
        auto = subscribe # autocreate Spam, but don't autosubscribe
        special_use = \Junk

service auth {
  unix_listener /var/spool/postfix/private/auth {
    group = postfix
    mode = 0660
    user = postfix
# Outlook Express and Windows Mail works only with LOGIN mechanism, not the standard PLAIN:
auth_mechanisms = plain login

ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/mailcert.pem
ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/mail.key
postfix start
service dovecot restart


Tutorial to install mail server with postfix dspam and dovecot. The server configuration uses a vmail user.

We need the following packages to be installed for debian:

sudo apt-get install postfix dspam libdspam7-drv-hash dovecot-antispam dovecot-managesieved dovecot-sieve dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-lmtpd opendkim opendkim-tools

or for archlinux:

sudo pacman -S postfix dspam dovecot opendkim

we then need to create a virtual user called vmail

sudo addgroup --gid 5000 vmail
sudo adduser --home /home/mail/ --uid 5000 --gid 5000 --shell /bin/false vmail

The mails will be stored in /home/mail/ and we forbid connection to this user by setting `--shell /bin/false

Postfix configuration:

We can stop the postfix server before configuring it:

sudo service postfix stop

we have to edit the file /etc/postfix/main.cf to configure postfix

sudo mv /etc/postfix/main.cf /etc/postfix/main.cf.back
sudo vim /etc/postfix/main.cf

and add the following content:

# general
myhostname = modolo-dev.fr
mydestination = modolo-dev.fr, mail.modolo-dev.fr, localhost
# we can send mails from anywhere
mynetworks = [::ffff:]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +

# other domains to handle
virtual_mailbox_domains = igmo.fr, mail.igmo.fr
# where to put the mails
virtual_mailbox_base = /home/mail/vhosts
# mapping between adress and mail folder
virtual_mailbox_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_mailbox_recipients
# only the vmail user with id 5000 handles things
virtual_uid_maps = static:5000
virtual_gid_maps = static:5000
# here we are going to set the alias (postmaster -> laurent)
virtual_mailbox_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_mailbox_recipients

# security
# we make use of our certificate and force tls connection
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtp_tls_security_level = may
# we don't want old unsecure SSL protocols
smtpd_tls_protocols = !SSLv2, !SSLv3
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
# we only wan't authenticated user
# we also reject mail flaged as spam from zen.spamhaus.org, bl.spamcop.net and cbl.abuseat.org
smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated, 
                                reject_rbl_client zen.spamhaus.org,
                                reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net,
                                reject_rbl_client cbl.abuseat.org,
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
# dovecot handle the sasl authentification
smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot
# authentification socket
smtpd_sasl_path = private/auth
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes

# spam
# we give the mails to dspam
virtual_transport  = lmtp:unix:dspam/dspam.sock

# DKIM (see below)
milter_protocol = 2
milter_default_action = accept
smtpd_milters = inet:localhost:12301
non_smtpd_milters = inet:localhost:12301

Then we have to edit the file /etc/postfix/master.cf to control how to connect to the mail server.

sudo mv /etc/postfix/master.cf /etc/postfix/master.cf.back
sudo vim /etc/postfix/master.cf

We enable the "submission" daemon with TLS to secure the outer connection, and dovecot-mediated SASL to check the username and password of connecting clients:

smtp      inet  n       -       n       -       -       smtpd

submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
  -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=no # we use starttls not TLS
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
  -o smtpd_sasl_type=dovecot
  -o smtpd_sasl_path=private/auth

smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps
  -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes # we force TLS
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
  -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject

dspam     unix  -       n       n       -       10      pipe
  flags=Ru user=vmail argv=/usr/bin/dspam --deliver=innocent,spam --user $recipient -i -f $sender -- $recipient
pickup    unix  n       -       n       60      1       pickup
cleanup   unix  n       -       n       -       0       cleanup
qmgr      unix  n       -       n       300     1       qmgr
tlsmgr    unix  -       -       n       1000?   1       tlsmgr
rewrite   unix  -       -       n       -       -       trivial-rewrite
bounce    unix  -       -       n       -       0       bounce
defer     unix  -       -       n       -       0       bounce
trace     unix  -       -       n       -       0       bounce
verify    unix  -       -       n       -       1       verify
flush     unix  n       -       n       1000?   0       flush
proxymap  unix  -       -       n       -       -       proxymap
proxywrite unix -       -       n       -       1       proxymap
smtp      unix  -       -       n       -       -       smtp
relay     unix  -       -       n       -       -       smtp
showq     unix  n       -       n       -       -       showq
error     unix  -       -       n       -       -       error
retry     unix  -       -       n       -       -       error
discard   unix  -       -       n       -       -       discard
local     unix  -       n       n       -       -       local
virtual   unix  -       n       n       -       -       virtual
lmtp      unix  -       -       n       -       -       lmtp
anvil     unix  -       -       n       -       1       anvil
scache    unix  -       -       n       -       1       scache

We edit the file /etc/postfix/virtual_mailbox_recipients:

sudo vim /etc/postfix/virtual_mailbox_recipients
laurent@modolo-dev.fr    modolo-dev.fr/laurent
ignace@modolo-dev.fr    modolo-dev.fr/ignace
adele@modolo-dev.fr    modolo-dev.fr/adele
ines@modolo-dev.fr    modolo-dev.fr/ines
juliette@modolo-dev.fr    modolo-dev.fr/juliette

Which for example for the user laurent will correspond to the folder /home/mail/vhosts/modolo.fr/laurent.

We set the alias in the file /etc/postfix/virtual_alias_recipients:

sudo vim /etc/postfix/virtual_alias_recipients
postmaster@modolo-dev.fr laurent@modolo-dev.fr
admin@modolo-dev.fr laurent@modolo-dev.fr
root@modolo-dev.fr laurent@modolo-dev.fr

Then we compile those two file for postfix:

sudo touch /etc/aliases
sudo newaliases
sudo postmap /etc/postfix/virtual_mailbox_recipients
sudo postmap /etc/postfix/virtual_alias_recipients

dspam configuration

We set postfix to send the mail to dspam/dspam.sock. By default this is in the chroot of postfix which is in /var/spool/postfix/. we need to create a folder for dspam there:

sudo mkdir -p /var/spool/postfix/dspam
sudo chown dspam: /var/spool/postfix/dspam
sudo mkdir /var/log/dspam/
sudo chown -R dspam /var/log/dspam

To configure dspam we need to edit the file /etc/default/dspam:

sudo mv /etc/default/dspam /etc/default/dspam.back
sudo vim /etc/default/dspam

and the file /etc/dspam/dspam.conf:

sudo mv /etc/default/dspam.conf /etc/default/dspam.conf.back
sudo vim /etc/default/dspam.conf
DeliveryHost            /var/run/dovecot/lmtp # we pass the mail to dovecot after filtering
DeliveryPort            4190
DeliveryIdent           localhost
DeliveryProto           LMTP

Trust vmail # vmail user move the mail according to sieve rules

Preference "tagSpam=on" # we flag the spam
Preference "spamAction=deliver" # we deliver the spam

ServerMode auto
ServerParameters        "--deliver=innocent,spam" # we also deliver the mails flaged as spam, which will be send to the junk folder by sieve
ServerDomainSocketPath  "/var/spool/postfix/dspam/dspam.sock" # the path of the posfix socket

At last we need to edit the file /etc/dspam/default.prefs:

sudo mv /etc/dspam/default.prefs /etc/dspam/default.prefs.back
sudo vim /etc/dspam/default.prefs
spamAction=deliver # we deliver the spam

Dovecot configuration

In debian the dovecot configuration is split accross many files in the /etc/dovecot/conf.d/ folder. We are going to edit many of them.

sudo mv /etc/dovecot/conf.d /etc/dovecot/conf.d.back
sudo mkdir /etc/dovecot/conf.d/
sudo cp /etc/dovecot/conf.d.back/* /etc/dovecot/conf.d/
sudo cp /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf.sample /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf

sudo touch /var/log/dovecot.log
sudo touch /var/log/dovecot-info.log
sudo chown vmail:vmail /var/log/dovecot.log /var/log/dovecot-info.log
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf
!include conf.d/*.conf
protocols = imap pop3 lmtp
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf
disable_plaintext_auth = yes
auth_mechanisms = plain login
passdb {
    driver = passwd-file
    args = scheme=CRYPT username_format=%u /etc/dovecot/users
userdb {
    args = uid=vmail gid=vmail home=/home/mail/vhosts/%d/%n allow_all_users=yes
    driver = static
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf
# %d = domaine %n = user
mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir
namespace inbox {
    separator = /
    inbox = yes
    mailbox Trash {
        auto = subscribe
        special_use = \Trash
    mailbox Drafts {
        auto = subscribe
        special_use = \Drafts
    mailbox Sent {
        auto = subscribe # autocreate and autosubscribe the Sent mailbox
        special_use = \Sent
    mailbox "Sent Messages" {
        auto = no
        special_use = \Sent
    mailbox Spam {
        auto = subscribe # autocreate Spam, but don't autosubscribe
        special_use = \Junk
# vmail user
mail_uid = 5000
mail_gid = 5000
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf
service lmtp {
    unix_listener lmtp {
        user = vmail # the vmail user handle every things
service auth {
    unix_listener /var/spool/postfix/private/auth {
        mode = 0666
        user = postfix
        group = postfix
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf
ssl = required
ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/mailcert.pem
ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/mail.key
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/15-lda.conf
postmaster_address = root@modolo-dev.fr
protocol lda {
    auth_socket_path = /var/spool/postfix/private/auth
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-imap.conf
protocol imap {
    mail_plugins = $mail_plugins antispam # we load the antispam plugin
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-director.conf
protocol lmtp {
    # Space separated list of plugins to load (default is global mail_plugins).
    mail_plugins = $mail_plugins sieve # we load seive to sort mail
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-managesieve.conf
service managesieve-login {
    inet_listener sieve {
        port = 4190
service managesieve {
protocol sieve {
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-plugin.conf
plugin {
    autocreate = Trash
    autocreate2 = Sent
    autocreate3 = Junk
    autosubscribe = Trash
    autosubscribe2 = Sent
    autosubscribe3 = Junk
    antispam_backend = dspam
    antispam_dspam_binary = /usr/bin/dspam
    antispam_dspam_args = --deliver;--user;%u
    antispam_spam = Junk
    antispam_trash = Trash
    antispam_unsure = Trash
    antispam_signature = X-DSPAM-Signature
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf
plugin {
    # The path to the user's main active script. If ManageSieve is used, this the
    # location of the symbolic link controlled by ManageSieve.
    sieve = ~/.dovecot.sieve
    sieve_dir = ~/sieve
    sieve_before = /home/mail/sieve/before/ # we apply this rule to all the mails

We add the rule for seive to move mails tagged as spam in the junk folder

sudo mkdir -p /home/mail/sieve/before/
sudo vim /home/mail/sieve/before/spam.sieve
require ["fileinto"];
# rule:[SPAM]
if anyof (header :contains "X-DSPAM-Result" "Spam")
    fileinto "Junk";

then we compile this rule for sieve:

sudo sievec /home/mail/sieve/before/spam.sieve

We can then add new user to dovecot with the following command:

doveadm pw -s CRYPT
sudo vim /etc/dovecot/users 

we set the rights right:

sudo chown -R vmail:vmail /home/mail

DKIM configuration

Configure DKIM:

sudo mv /etc/opendkim/opendkim.conf /etc/opendkim/opendkim.conf.back
sudo mkdir -p /var/run/opendkim/
sudo mkdir -p /etc/opendkim/
sudo chown -R opendkim /var/run/opendkim/
sudo chown -R opendkim /etc/opendkim/
sudo vim /etc/opendkim.conf
AutoRestart             Yes
AutoRestartRate         10/1h
UMask                   002
Syslog                  yes
SyslogSuccess           Yes
LogWhy                  Yes
Canonicalization        relaxed/simple
ExternalIgnoreList      refile:/etc/opendkim/TrustedHosts
InternalHosts           refile:/etc/opendkim/TrustedHosts
KeyTable                refile:/etc/opendkim/KeyTable
SigningTable            refile:/etc/opendkim/SigningTable
Mode                    sv
PidFile                 /var/run/opendkim/opendkim.pid
SignatureAlgorithm      rsa-sha256
UserID                  opendkim
Socket                  inet:12301@localhost

We connect DKIM to postfix:

sudo vim /etc/default/opendkim

We configure the trusted host allowed to send mails:

sudo vim /etc/opendkim/TrustedHosts

Create folders for the keys:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/opendkim/keys

and then we configure the keys table:

sudo vim /etc/opendkim/KeyTable
mail._domainkey.modolo-dev.fr modolo-dev.fr:mail:/etc/opendkim/keys/modolo-dev.fr/mail.private

We configure the signing table:

sudo vim /etc/opendkim/SigningTable
*@emodolo-dev.fr mail._domainkey.modolo-dev.fr

We then have to generate the keys with mail.private the private key and mail.txt the public key

sudo mkdir -p /etc/opendkim/keys/modolo-dev.fr/
cd /etc/opendkim/keys/modolo-dev.fr/
sudo opendkim-genkey -s mail -d modolo-dev.fr
sudo chown opendkim mail.private
sudo mkdir -p /var/run/opendkim/
sudo chown -R opendkim /var/run/opendkim/
sudo service opendkim start

DNS configuation:

We also need to be sure that we DNS configuration for the mail server is correct: verify DNS configuration

dig MX modolo-dev.fr

modolo-dev.fr. 1800 IN MX 0 modolo-dev.fr.

host mail.modolo-dev.fr

mail.modolo-dev.fr is an alias for modolo-dev.fr. modolo-dev.fr has address modolo-dev.fr mail is handled by 0 modolo-dev.fr.

We then need to edit the DNS configuration to add the key to it

cat /etc/opendkim/keys/modolo-dev.fr/mail.txt

The public key is defined under the -p parameter Add the following TXT entry to your DNS configuration:

Name: mail._domainkey.modolo-dev.fr.
Text: "v=DKIM1; k=rsa; p=Your_public_key"

To finish :

sudo service postfix restart
sudo service dovecot restart